Aligarh Muslim University (AMU) Syllabus M.B.B.S. / B.D.S.
PHYSICAL WORLD AND MEASUREMENT
Physics-scope and excitement, nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society. Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments, errors in measurement; significant figures. Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications.
Frame of reference. Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity.
Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).
Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.
Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.
Unit vector; Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile motion. Uniform circular motion.
LAWS OF MOTION
Intuitive concepts of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction. Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).
WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
Scalar product of vectors. Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.
Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces: conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces: elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
MOTION OF SYSTEM OF PARTICLES AND RIGID BODY
Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conversation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.
Vector product of vectors; moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples.
Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equations of rotational motion. Comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration.
Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
Keplar’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation.
Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity. Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geo-stationary satellites.
PROPERTIES OF BULK MATTER
Elastic behaviour, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity.
Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications (hydraulic lift and hydraulic brakes). Effect of gravity on fluid pressure.
Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat-calorimetry; change of statelatent heat. Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, thermal conductivity, Newton’s law of cooling.
Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics.
Second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators.
BEHAVIOUR OF PERFECT GAS AND KINETIC THEORY
Equation of state of perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.
Kinetic theory of gases-assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; rms speed of gas molecules; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heats of gases; concept of mean free path, Avogadro’s number.
OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES
Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M) and its equation; oscillations of a springrestoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M.-kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.
Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect.
Electric charges, Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s low-force between two point charges forces between multiple charges, superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole electric field due to a dipole torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.
Electric flux, statement of gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire uniformly charges infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged tin spherical shell (field inside and outside).
Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charge; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor. Van de Graaff generator.
Electric current flow of electric chargers in a metallic conductor drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.
Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell combination of cells in series and in parallel.
Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge and metre bridge. Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
MAGNETIC EFFECTS OF CURRENT AND MAGNETISM
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.
Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids.
Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron.
Force on a current – carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current – carrying conductors – definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer – its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole, moment of a revolving electron, magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid magnetic field line; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements para – dia – and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors of affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS
Electromagnetic Induction; Faraday’s law. Induced emf and current; Lenz’s law, Eddy current self and mutual inductance.
Need for displacement current.
Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating; current/voltage, reactance and impedance;
LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in ac circuits wattles current.
AC generator and transformer.
Displacement current, Electromagnetic wave and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only) Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, xrays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Reflection of light spherical mirrors, mirror formula refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses thin lens formula lens maker’s Formula. Magnification power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contract. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light – blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correct of eye defects (myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical Telescopes (reflecting and refraction) and their magnifying powers.
Waves optics: Wave front and Huygens principle reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes Polarization, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law. Uses of plane polarized light and polaroids.
DUAL NATURE OF MATTER AND RADIATION
Dual nature of Radiation Photoelectric, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s Photoelectric equation – particle nature of light.
Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davission – Germer experiment.
ATOMS & NUCLEI
Alpha-particle scattering experiment, Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels hydrogen spectrum.
Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity – alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear reactor, nuclear fusion.
Semiconductors; semiconductor diode – I – V. characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I – V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode: Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch.
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude-modulate wave.
- Some Basic concepts of Chemistry, Structure of Atom, Classification of elements and periodicity in properties, Chemical bonding and molecular structure.
- States of matter : Gases and liquids, Solid State, Solutions.
- Equilibrium, Redox reactions, Electrochemistry.
- Chemical Kinetics, Surface Chemistry.
- Hydrogen, General principles and process of isolation of elements, Studies of s & p-d and f – block elements, Coordination compounds.
- Organic Chemistry : Some basic principles and Techniques, Hydrocarbons.
Haloalkanes and Haloarenes, alcohols, phenols and Ethers.
- Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids.
- Organic compounds containing nitrogen.
- Biomolecules, Polymers, Chemistry in everyday life.
- Environmental Chemistry.
AN INTRODUCTION TO BOTANY
The living world – nature and scope of biology, characteristics of living organisms, differences between plants and animals and taxonomic categories.
Biological classification – two kingdom classification and its short comings, five kingdom classification, kingdom Monera, kingdom Protista, kingdom Fungi, kingdom Plantae, kingdom Animalia and viruses, viroids, lichens and mycorrhizae.
Plant kingdom – algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms and plant life cycles and alternation of generations.
STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION IN PLANTS
Morphology of flowering plants – the root, the stem, the leaf, the inflorescence, the flower, the seed, semi-technical description of some important familities (Fabaceae, Solanaceae, Liliaceae).
Anatomy of flowering plants – the tissues, the tissue system, anatomy of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants and secondary growth.
STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS
The plant cell – cell theory, structural organization (organelles and their function), prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, cell wall, biomembranes and fluid mosaic model.
Biomolecules – primary and secondary metabolites, proteins, polysaccharides, nucleic acids, concept of metabolism and enzymes.
Cell cycle and cell division – cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis and their significance.
Transport in plants – means of transport, plant water relations, long distance transport of water, transpiration, uptake and transport of mineral nutrients and phloem transport flow from source to sink.
Mineral nutrition – modes of nutrition, essential mineral elements and their major functions, mechanism of absorption of elements and metabolism of nitrogen.
Photosynthesis in higher plants – early experiments, seat of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis, light reaction dark reaction, the C4 pathway and photorespiration.
Respiration in plants – gas exchange in plants, glycolysis, fermentation, aerobic respiration, Krebs cycle, electron transport system and oxidative phosphorylation.
Plant growth and development – growth, differentiation, development, major plant growth regulators, photoperiodism and vernalization.
Reproduction in organisms – asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants – structure of flower, pollination, fertilization, apomixes and ployembryony.
GENETICS AND EVOLUTION
Principles of inheritance and variation – Mendel’s laws of inheritance, inheritance of one gene, inheritance of two genes, sex determination, mutation and genetic disorders.
Molecular basis of inheritance – nucleic acids, replication, transcription, genetic code, translation, regulation of gene expression, DNA fingerprinting, gene pools and genetic conservation.
Evolution – origin of life, evolution of life forms : a theory, evidences for evolution and mechanism of evolution.
BIOLOGY (BOTANY) IN HUMAN WELFARE
Strategies for enhancement in food production – plant breeding and plant introduction, use of fertilizers (economic and ecological aspects), use of pesticides
(advantages and hazards), single cell proteins, and tissue culture and its application.
Microbes in human welfare – microbes in household products, industrial products, sewage treatment, production of biogas and microbes as biocontrol agents and as biofertilisers, green manure, crop residues and nitrogen fixation (symbiotic and nonsymbiotic).
Biotechnology : principles and processes – principles of biotechnology, tools of recombinant DNA technology and processes of recombinant DNA technology.
Biotechnology and its application – biotechnological applications in agriculture and medicine, and ethical issues.
Organisms and population – organisms and its environment and populations.
Ecosystem – ecosystem structure and function, energy flow, food chain and food web, ecological pyramids, ecological succession and nutrient cycling.
Biodiversity and conservation – biodiversity and its conservation.
Environmental issues – air, noise and water populations and their control, solid wastes, agro-chemicals and theirs effects, radioactive wastes, green house effect and global warning, eutrophication, ozone depletion, degradation by improper resource utilization, conservation of natural resources and deforestation.
- Diversity of living organisms, Classification of the living organisms (Five Kingdom Classification major groups and principles of Classification within kingdom : Protista and Animalia). Systematics and binomial system of nomenclature, Salient features of animal classification (non-chordates up to Phylum level and chordates up to Class level), Zoological Parks and Museum.
- Tissues in animals, Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems of an annielid (earthworm), an insect (cockroach) and an amphibian (frog).
- Basic chemical constituents of living bodies. Structure and function of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, Enzymes : Types, properties and functions.
- Digestion and absorption, Breathing and Respiration, Body fluids and circulation, Excretory-products and elimination, Locomotion and movement, Control and Coordination, Reproductive system in male and female, menstrual cycle, production of gametes, fertilization, implantation, embryo development, pregnancy parturition and lactation, Reproductive Health : birth control, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases, infertility.
- Human Genetics : Sex determination in human being : XX, XY, Linkage and Crossing over. Inheritance pattern of haemophilia and blood groups in human beings, Genome and Human Genome Project, DNA fingerprinting.
- Theories of organic evolution, Evidences and Mechanism of organic evolution.
- Animal Husbandry, Basic concept of immunology, vaccines, Pathogens, parasites, Cancer and AIDS, Adolescence and drug / alcohol abuse, Recombinant DNA technology.
- Species population and community, Animal ecological adaptation, Centres of diversity and conservation of biodiversity, National parks and Sanctuaries.